### Curriculum

# Second Grade Curriculum

### Second Grade Language Arts

**Reading**

Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

- Recognize common abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.).
- Identify and correctly use regular plurals (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals (e.g., fly/ flies, wife/ wives).
- Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms.
- Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.
- Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes (e.g., over-, un-, -ing, -ly).

**Reading Comprehension**

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources).

- State the purpose in reading (i. e., tell what information is sought).
- Use knowledge of the author's purpose( s) to comprehend informational text.
- Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why, what if, how).
- Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.
- Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.

**Writing**

Students write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions). Create readable documents with legible handwriting.

**Writing Applications**

Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

**Sentence Structure and Grammar**

- Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences.
- Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.
- Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, including nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking.

**Punctuation**

- Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and items in a series.
- Use quotation marks correctly.

**Capitalization**

Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and greetings, months and days of the week, and titles and initials of people.

**Spelling**

- Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., was, were, says, said, who, what, why).
- Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel, r- controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly.

### Second Grade Mathematics

**Number Sense**

- Count, read, and write whole numbers to 1,000 and identify the place value for each digit.
- Use words, models, and expanded forms (e.g., 45 = 4 tens + 5) to represent numbers (to 1,000).
- Order and compare whole numbers to 1,000 by using the symbols <, =, >.
- Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., an opposite number sentence for 8 + 6 = 14 is 14 - 6 = 8) to solve problems and check solutions.
- Find the sum or difference of two whole numbers up to three digits long.
- Use mental arithmetic to find the sum or difference of two two-digit numbers.
- Know the multiplication tables of 2s, 5s, and 10s (to "times 10") and commit them to memory.
- Recognize, name, and compare unit fractions from 1/12 to 1/2.
- Recognize fractions of a whole and parts of a group (e.g., one-fourth of a pie, two-thirds of 15 balls).
- Know that when all fractional parts are included, such as four-fourths, the result is equal to the whole and to one.
- Know and use the decimal notation and the dollar and cent symbols for money.

**Algebra and Functions**

- Use the commutative and associative rules to simplify mental calculations and to check results.
- Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.
- Solve addition and subtraction problems by using data from simple charts, picture graphs, and number sentences.

**Measurement and Geometry**

- Measure the length of objects by iterating (repeating) a nonstandard or standard unit.
- Use different units to measure the same object and predict whether the measure will be greater or smaller when a different unit is used.
- Measure the length of an object to the nearest inch and/ or centimeter.
- Tell time to the nearest quarter hour and know relationships of time (e.g., minutes in an hour, days in a month, weeks in a year).
- Determine the duration of intervals of time in hours (e.g., 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.).
- Describe and classify plane and solid geometric shapes (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, sphere, pyramid, cube, rectangular prism) according to the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices.
- Put shapes together and take them apart to form other shapes (e.g., two congruent right triangles can be arranged to form a rectangle).

**Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability**

- Record numerical data in systematic ways, keeping track of what has been counted.
- Represent the same data set in more than one way (e.g., bar graphs and charts with tallies).
- Identify features of data sets (range and mode).
- Ask and answer simple questions related to data representations.